Wednesday, October 31, 2007

Immigrants Brought HIV To America Via Haiti As Determined By Genetic Analysis Of Lineages Of The Virus

"Analysis clarifies route of AIDS
The virus from Africa reached the U.S. by way of Haiti, a genetic study shows.
By Jia-Rui Chong, Los Angeles Times Staff Writer
October 30, 2007
A genetic analysis of 25-year-old blood samples has outlined a new map of the AIDS virus' journey out of Africa, showing that today's most widespread subtype first emerged in Haiti in the 1960s and arrived in the United States a few years later.

The analysis fills in a gap in the history of the virus, whose migration has been known in only sketchy form from its origin in Africa in the 1930s to its first detection in Los Angeles in 1981.

Dr. Michael Gottlieb, an assistant clinical professor of medicine at UCLA and one of the discoverers of acquired immune deficiency syndrome, said the analysis placed the virus in the United States nearly a decade earlier than previously believed.

"It's pretty clear evidence for Haiti as a steppingstone," he said. "The suggestion that the infection was further below our radar than I'd previously suspected is kind of unnerving."

The analysis, published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, focused on a variety of HIV known as subtype B, the most prevalent form in most countries outside of Africa.

Michael Worobey, an evolutionary biologist at the University of Arizona and senior author of the study, analyzed five blood samples collected in 1982 and 1983 from Haitian AIDS patients in Miami.

The samples were held in frozen storage by the national Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Worobey and his colleagues looked at two viral genes and compared their sequences with viruses from around the world.

As a baseline, they used virus samples from Central Africa that are considered some of the earliest forms of the human immunodeficiency virus .

Because viruses constantly mutate, researchers could construct a rough timeline of development by measuring how much the genes in more recent samples had drifted away from their ancestral forms.

The team found that the Haitian samples were genetically the most closely related to the African virus, indicating that they were among the earliest to branch off.

Statistically, researchers found a 99.7% certainty that HIV subtype B originated in Haiti, Worobey said.

Worobey surmised that the virus was brought to Haiti by workers who had gone to the Democratic Republic of Congo, formerly known as Zaire, after it became independent in 1960. THE VIRUS APPEARS TO HAVE BEEN CARRIED TO THE UNITED STATES BY HAITIAN IMMIGRANTS[emphasis added by JB] between 1966 and 1972, according to the mutation timeline.

Researchers have debated for years whether the U.S. epidemic came directly from Africa or through Haiti.

They have also debated whether Americans exported the virus to Haiti via a tourist sex trade that flourished in the late 1970s and early '80s. Worobey said the latest study did "a good job of settling the debate. . . . This shows quite clearly that the data is really only consistent with a Haiti-first origin." JB Comments: Valuing openness to this sort of diversity is lethal, and on quite a large scale.
Added 8-17-08 from: Friday, August 15, 2008

Rampaging Natural Enemies Of The Open City
As found on Dr. John Jay Ray's IMMIGRATION WATCH INTERNATIONALquoting from this Source :"...Exotic diseases are on the rise here in the U.S. And although nasty tropical ailments like dengue fever, brucellosis, and schistosomiasis are common in the wilds of Africa, Asia, and South America, they’re becoming hot topics here in States as well. Why? Well, illegal immigration, of course. But no one - especially the media - is willing to come out and tell this truth to the American public. No, that would be offensive to the criminals who stream across our border every day. These diseases from antiquity have no place in 21st century America, but thanks to the unsanitary practices of people from the Third World (liberals would call this part of their “culture”), they’re thriving. And you’ll just love the politically correct euphemism for them: “neglected infections of poverty.” If it didn’t make me so spitting mad, I’d find it hilarious. The cold, hard truth of the matter is that these ailments thrive in conditions that arise from unsanitary living and poor dietary habits. And if that’s offensive to you. well, sorry. It just happens to be the truth.A list of 24 so-called “neglected infections of poverty” were recently listed in a Public Library of Science journal. Many on the list already pose a significant health issue in the U.S., affecting as many as 1 million people. An L.A. Times article I read said that, in the Los Angeles area, the tapeworm infection cysticercosis (which originates with pork, and spreads in crowded, unsanitary conditions) accounts for 10 percent of all seizures that result in emergency room visits. It doesn’t take a huge leap to figure that illegal immigrants in the LA area live in crowded and probably unsanitary conditions. What drives me crazy is that the media is presenting these diseases as though they are diseases of the poor. That’s only partially true. The fact of the matter is that they are typical of the Third World poor, not the American poor. Consider of the source of these diseases: brucellosis is a bacterial infection that comes from unsanitary dairy products. Recently, I wrote to you about the prevalance of “queso fresco” or “bathtub cheese” that’s popular in the immigrant community. That’s where this stuff comes from. Schistosomiasis comes from exposure to water that’s contaminated with freshwater snails. It’s common in South America. I ask you: How many poor folks in the inner cities of the U.S. have had exposure to water contaminated by freshwater snails!?The media and the left are playing a dangerous game with the nation’s public health with their touchy-feely misplaced compassion. Diseased criminals are streaming over our borders and burdening our already overburdened healthcare system with foreign maladies - and no one wants to do anything about it. No one wants to speak the truth or state the facts for fear of being called a racist or a xenophobe. "Quality of population, and the ill effects of tring to force others to act as if they valued openness to damagingly low quality of population, is what is going on here. Pro-diversity even means what one would hope that no intelligent people would ever include in their idea of diversity-value, in effect, they are valuing PATHOGEN diversity. This is another way to know for certain, that unspeakably vicious malice is involved; if you are in effect valuing pathogen diversity along with your general celebration of diversity and openness to it. Not only must there be malice in it, there must be a dishonesty, one that covers for the real aim behind the lies about how diversity makes us stronger and richer in and of itself. Would it be reasonably doubted that officialdom and its professoriate, having once secured the dictatorship and its powers, would still give out this diversity-value line? If not, then the whole dishonest, standards-damaging process would be about power, how to get it.


Stanley Lucas said...

The Association of Haitian Physicians Abroad (AMHE) responds to Worobey study, November 7, 2006
The Association of Haitian Physicians Abroad (Association des Médecins Haitiens à l'Etranger or AMHE) has reviewed the recent article by Thomas Gilbert and colleagues, reporting a phylogenetic analysis of archival blood samples collected from five early recognized AIDS patients at Jackson Memorial Hospital in 1982-1983.

The study authors identify these five patients as Haitians who left Haiti after 1975. This article has several important limitations and does not provide any scientific breakthrough. Before a detailed critique of this paper, AMHE would like to point at the following remarks in methodological biases that may explain some of the study findings. First, the bias in selection of early samples of HIV among Haitians is quite obvious. The investigators chose a convenient sample under the unproven assumption that all these Haitian immigrants acquired HIV infection in Haiti. They obviously ignore that the clinical course of these patients perfectly fits the natural history of HIV/AIDS. No culturally-sensitive epidemiological investigation has ever been conducted of these initial Haitian immigrants presenting with HIV infection at Jackson Memorial Hospital in Miami. Therefore, the assertion that they contracted HIV in Haiti is presumptuous and not based on facts. Moreover, no archival samples from Haiti are included in the phylogenetic analysis and this constitutes a serious flaw. We do not know either how many samples of the pandemic clade B might have come from Haitian subjects, which raises the prospect of misclassification.
Second, the authors do not adequately report on some of their methods and results. For example, they do not specify clearly the number of sequences for which there was uncertainty as to which subtype they belonged to; neither do they try to replicate their results by sequencing other HIV genes. While computer simulation techniques and phylogenetic analyses are important to our understanding of biological evolution, the application of these methods with such serious methodological limitations does not prove unequivocally the origin of the pandemic clade B subtype in the United States.
Because these findings lack scientific validation, we need to raise questions about the motives of the authors; their paper not only does not advance our knowledge of the HIV epidemic but it continues with a dangerous precedent of victimizing an ethnic group with flimsy data. Needless to say that such half truths have been very harmful to the country and its people. The hasty classification of Haitians as a group at risk for HIV more than 20 years ago can be considered as a cloud hanging over good scientific practice. It destroyed the tourist industry in Haiti; its citizens have since been suffering from the social stigmata of presumed carriers of dangerous germs even though that classification was finally removed by the CDC.
We are also afraid that such mishandling of data can have the unintended consequence of the refusal of Haitian patients to participate in research studies at American Universities for the fear that they will be used as guinea pigs in the furtherance of biased scientific protocols and conclusions. That would be the saddest of ironies for we all need good science to help us all against this calamity.
La Science sans conscience n'est que ruine de l'âme.

Christian Lauriston, MD
President of the Central Executive Committee of AMHE.

John S. Bolton said...

There would not seem to be bias in selecting early samples if the purpose of the study is to identify the historical steps of the virus during that period. They do not need to have a culturally-sensitive study which would assume that medical science be made to serve national-image primping. You question their motives, since they don't want to suppress results which would harm tourism and Haitian image-improvement; this calls your motives into question as commitment to truth is not found subservient to such extraneous considerations. There is gross evil in wanting to facilitate the vectors of lethal sexual disease. That your Haitian medical society wishes to cover up for the vectors of lethal disease, after genetic analysis has determined so precisely the route by which HIV found its vectors into America and beyond, intensifies the disgrace on Haiti. Though the government of Haiti does not have to provide many samples to allow for endless confirmation of the study results which implicated their country, if they felt at all confident they would provide some, or allow some to be taken and studied. Haitian immigrants are numerous enough though, that the phyogenies could be studied in endless detail if this were desired. Truth does not 'victimize,' but a driven passion to conceal it for reasons of national prestige, makes a victim of the advancement of knowledge and civilization, which Haitian professionals could be working with, rather than against, on this question.

John S. Bolton said...

This study is being widely reported:Google
Advanced Search
Web Results 1 - 10 of about 15,300 for Haiti Worobey. (0.30 seconds)
HIV's path out of Africa: Haiti, the US then the world
The finding helps explain the early observations of a high prevalence of AIDS in Haiti, Worobey said. "The virus had simply been there longer." ... - 11k - Cached - Similar pages - Note this
HIV arrived in U.S. from Haiti 10 years earlier than previously ...
Worobey concluded that the virus was brought to Haiti by Haitians who traveled to the Democratic Republic of Congo after it became independent in 1960. ... - 43k - Cached - Similar pages - Note this
Analysis clarifies route of AIDS - Los Angeles Times
Worobey surmised that the virus was brought to Haiti by workers who had gone to the Democratic Republic of Congo, formerly known as Zaire, after it became ...,0,1617683.story?coll=la-home-center - 40k - Cached - Similar pages - Note this
Digital Journal - HIV-1 Entered United States from Haiti in 1969
"The U.S., Australia, Europe plus many countries have just a subset of the subtype B diversity you see in Haiti," Worobey said. ... - 41k - Cached - Similar pages - Note this
San Jose Mercury News - Study: Haiti is source of AIDS virus in U.S.
Worobey surmised that the virus was brought to Haiti by workers who had gone to the Democratic Republic of Congo, formerly known as Zaire, after the country ... - 62k - Cached - Similar pages - Note this
AIDS came to US via just one migrant from Haiti | world news
"Haiti was the stepping stone the virus took when it left central Africa and started its sweep around the world," said Worobey, an assistant professor of ... - 21k - Cached - Similar pages - Note this
HAITI: Making Headway Under Hellacious Circumstances -- Cohen 313 ...
The poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, Haiti has more HIV/AIDS patients per ... Michael Worobey of the University of Arizona, Tucson, has recently ... - Similar pages - Note this
Examining Reaction To Study Tracking HIV's Arrival In US From ...
The researchers found a 99.7% certainty that HIV subtype B originated in Haiti, Worobey said. The mutation timeline of the virus presented in the study ... - 35k - Cached - Similar pages - Note this
Kaiser Daily HIV/AIDS Report -
The researchers found a 99.7% certainty that HIV subtype B originated in Haiti, Worobey said. Worobey concluded that the virus was brought to Haiti by ... - 59k - Cached - Similar pages - Note this
Report: Widespread HIV subtype emerged in Haiti --
Statistically, the researchers found a 99.7-percent certainty that HIV subtype B originated in Haiti, Worobey said. Worobey surmised that the virus was ...,0,1113962.story - Cached - Similar pages -

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