Saturday, August 18, 2007

With Regard to Loyalty Such as May be Commanded, Civilization is Lacking in Attributes of Sovereignty, Except...

...that loyalty to the several nations which largely comprise it can, between them, add up to it. One is loyal to the citizenry of one's nation, at the very least, relative to foreigners whose entry raises the level of aggression within the boundaries of that nation. That minimum may be commanded to the extent of making resident aliens of citizens who refuse to give it. Beyond this, the loyalty to the continuity of the advancement of civilization, as an attempt at consistency in our accounts of what exists and a series of obstacles to freedom-for-aggression, may be seen to follow. To follow, that is, from the loyalty to citizens otherwise subject to aggression from outside, and from a literate development of attempts at consistency. From the above considerations, a remarkably un-cosmopolitan conclusion would follow: one cannot have loyalty to civilization, unless one first has loyalty to fellow citizens over against the foreigner, who increases the level of aggression upon some of these, to whom loyalty is owed, as through the nation, but not otherwise.
//www.normandyhistorians.guildford-surrey.co.uk/war2.html:
Mindful of the experience of Holland and Belgium where refugees had choked the roads and prevented their own forces from engaging the enemy, the advice was to stay put until told to evacuate an area.(11) Sonia Tomara, New York Tribune (14th June, 1940):
Refugees blocked the road by trying to get past the main line of cars, thus interfering with oncoming traffic.[...] We saw thousands of cars by the roadsides, without gasoline or broken down.[...] After three nights and two days we had made only seventy miles.
Fleeing Hitler: France 1940by Hanna Diamond -four million refugees joined nearly two million Belgians and 150,000 Dutch and Luxembourgeois who had been in flight since the Germans’ first attack, on May 10. //www.memorial-quineville.com/quineville-gb.asp:
there are soon up to 8 millions civilians on the roads of France, which is not without bothering the French – British military manoeuvres.
//www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/UN/UK/UK-NWE-Flanders/UK-NWE-Flanders-3.html The 5th Division in G.H.Q. reserves was moving up to the Senne, having now to stem an almost overwhelming stream of refugees flooding westwards.Streams of refugees added greatly to the danger and difficult of their task, making it impossible to close road blocks or prevent espionage. It was doubtless the difficulty of maintaining communications and control which led General Beauman to issue instructions that troops would hold on 'as long as any hope of successful resistance remained' and that 'Brigade commanders will use their discretion as regards withdrawal' which was to be 'to and across the Seine'.[36]...the Béthune behind them.[3] Withdrawal began during the night and, although greatly hampered and considerably delayed by congestion of refugee and other traffic on the roads, was duly completed." Axis History Forum Index » The Allies & the Neutral States » The Belgian's fought bravely ( May 1940): " more than one million Belgians (most of them on foot, as cars and horses had been requisitioned by the different armies) had become refugees. News of what happened at Vinkt would cause an additional one million to flee south or even west. By the middle of June, according to Red Cross figures, 30% of the Belgian population had left the country.
Arriving near the bridge on May 25, the German 225th Division, consisting mostly of badly trained soldiers from the Hamburg area, found it impossible to cross. They then took 140 civilians hostage and used them as human shields. "The Campaign of the Belgian army in May 1940:For several divisions it meant a retreat of 100 km, which had to be done on bad roads, clogged with refugees, which were their compatriots and who they couldn’t ask to free the roads. As the Belgian army had to take secondary roads, huge traffic jams were the result. At several places it took 24 hours to cover 20km.During the night of the 17th /18th of May all eight divisions on the frontline dislodged and started their retreat. From Blitzkrieg1940-http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/blitzkrieg.htm "May 10, the Germans unleashed their Blitzkrieg against the Netherlands and Belgium. The attack sent the defending troops reeling. The roads overflowed with refugees fleeing the front. French and British troops rushing to the rescue were caught in the headlong retreat" "The High Command is mostly in a state of confusion, and civilian refugees are blocking up the roads. The whole plan rests on the strength of the Gembloux position and the ability of the Belgian Army to delay the enemy. Neither has turned out as expected. If they act without delay before this evening, they can still prevent the Dyle plan from being carried out and adopt the Escaut Plan. Only the First Army’s three divisions of motorised infantry are on the move, the rest of the infantry has not yet crossed the frontier. They can still be held back," wrote General Prioux.
At 10 pm Billotte countermands Prioux and insists they stick with the Dyle Plan."12 million people - fleeing soldiers and terrified civilian refugees - are crowding roads out of every city in the north as Panzers race across France and panic grips the country. In Nancy, students working in bomb-proof cellars at the university are being snatched from their end of term exams by worried parents to join the chaotic stream heading west and south - in any direction away from the Germans. The town council has ordered the evacuation of the city, unaware that the enemy is relying on confusion and blocked roads to prevent the French army from re-grouping.

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